HSK 1 Course - Chapter 1: Basics
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Basics

Me & You

Vocabularies
I
you (singular)
we
he
she

爱 (ài) - to love
English:
to love
Example:
我爱你
I love you
你爱我
You love me
他爱她
He loves her


喜欢 (xǐ huan) - to like
English:
to like
Example:
我喜欢你
I like you
你喜欢我
You like me
我喜欢她,你喜欢她
I like her, you like her


和 (hé) - with, and
English:
with, and
Example:
我喜欢你和她
I like you and her




Grammar
The structure of a basic sentence is
Subject Verb Object
Example:
我 (subject) 爱 (verb) 你 (object)
我和你 (subject) 喜欢 (verb) 她 (object)


Vocabularies
no picture available
English:
very, quite
Example:
我很喜欢他
I like him a lot


no picture available
English:
all, both
Example:
我们都喜欢她
We like her
都很好
All is fine/nice/great
我们都很好
We're all doing fine
我和你都喜欢她
I and you like her


高兴 (gāo xìng) - happy, glad,
cheerful
English:
happy, glad, cheerful
Example:
我很高兴
I am very happy/excited
她爱我,我很高兴
She loves me, I am very happy


漂亮 (piào liang) - pretty, beautiful
English:
pretty, beautiful
Example:
她很漂亮
She is very pretty
你们都很漂亮
You're all looking great
她很漂亮,我很喜欢她
She is really pretty, I like her a lot




Grammar
Similar to “very“ in English, 很 is put in front of adjectives
Subject 很 Adjective
The difference to English is, that sentences with this structure don't need a verb “to be“
Example:
我很好 - I'm doing fine
你很漂亮 - You're beautiful
我很高兴 - I am very happy/excited


很 can also be put in front of verbs
Subject 很 Verb ...
Example:
我很喜欢他 - I like him a lot


This and that

Vocabularies
no picture available
English:
Measure word (MW) foralmost everything
Example:
(see below)


no picture available
English:
this
Example:
我很喜欢这个
I really like this


no picture available
English:
that
Example:
我很喜欢那个
I like that a lot


no picture available
English:
some, few, several
Example:
我很喜欢这些
I really like these
我很喜欢那些
I like those


no picture available
English:
to be
Example:
这是我
This is me


no picture available
English:
Character to form an attribute
Example:
这是我的
This is mine


朋友 (péng you) - friend
English:
friend
Example:
这是我的朋友
This is my friend




Grammar
The character 的 is used to express belonging
Object 的 Object
Example:
这是我的 - This is mine
这是我的朋友 - This is my friend
这是我朋友的朋友 - This is my friend's friend


Vocabularies
好 (hǎo) - good, nice, very
English:
good, nice, very
Example:
这是我很好的朋友
This is my very good friend
这是我的好朋友
This is my good friend
这是我好朋友
This is my good friend
她好漂亮
She is very beautiful
我好高兴
I am very happy


人 (rén) - person, people
English:
person, people
Example:
这个人很好
This person is very nice
这些人很好
Those people are very nice
这个人是我的朋友
This person is my friend
那个人很漂亮
That person is very beautiful




Past tense

Vocabularies
no picture available
English:
Character indicating past or change
Example:
我好了
I'm fine (now)


no picture available
English:
too, extremely
Example:
太好了!
Great!


衣服 (yī fu) - clothes
English:
clothes
Example:
这些衣服很漂亮
Those clothes look great


买 (mǎi) - to buy
English:
to buy
Example:
我买了衣服
I bought clothes
我买衣服了
I bought clothes
我买的衣服都很漂亮
The clothes I've bought do all look great


大 (dà) - big, great
English:
big, great
Example:
我买的衣服太大了
The clothes I bought are too big


小 (xiǎo) - small
English:
small
Example:
我买的衣服太小了
The clothes I bought are too small




To be or not to be

Vocabularies
不 (bù) - no, not
English:
no, not
Example:
我不喜欢你
I don't like you
我不买这个
I don't buy this
她不漂亮
She is not pretty


no picture available
English:
to have
Example:
我有衣服
I have clothes


没 (méi) - not
English:
not
Example:
我没有衣服
I don't have clothes
我没买这个
I didn't buy this
我没有买这个
I didn't buy this


钱 (qián) - money
English:
money
Example:
我有钱
I have money/I am rich
我没有钱
I don't have money/I am poor




Grammar
没 must be used to negate the verb 有
没 + 有
Example:
我没有衣服 - I don't have clothes
我没有钱 - I don't have money/I am poor


不 can be used to negate any other verb in either present or future or any adjective
不 + Verb/Adjective
Example:
我不喜欢你 - I don't like you
我不买这个 - I don't buy this
她不漂亮 - She is not pretty


没 used to negate other words than 有 signals past tense. Sentences with 有 might do as well
没 + Verb
Example:
我没买这个 - I didn't buy this
我没有买这个 -I didn't buy this


Simple Questions

Vocabularies
吗 (ma) - Character to form a
yes or no question
English:
Character to form a yes or no question
Example:
你喜欢买衣服
You like buying clothes
你喜欢买衣服吗?
Do you like buying clothes?
你爱她吗?
Do you love her?


呢 (ne) - Character to build a
question based on
earlier mentioned
topics and to
provide choices
English:
Character to build a question based on earlier mentioned topics and to provide choices
Example:
你喜欢买衣服吗?
Do you like buying clothes?
我很喜欢,你呢?
I like it a lot, and you?
我不太喜欢
I don't like it that much




Grammar
Another way to form a question is to use the verb twice with 不 or 没 in between
Verb 不/没 Verb
Example:
这是你的朋友 - This is your friend
这是不是你的朋友? - Is this your friend?
他有钱 - He has money
他有没有钱? - Does he have money?
你喜欢买衣服 - You like buying clothes
你喜不喜欢买衣服? - Do you like buying clothes?
你买不买? - Do you buy it?


Who, what and which

Vocabularies
谁 (shéi) - who
English:
who
Example:
我爱你
I love you
我爱谁?
Who do I love?
you
我爱你
I love you
谁爱你?
Who loves you?
I


什么 (shén me) - what
English:
what
Example:
你喜欢买衣服
You like buying clothes
你喜欢什么?
What do you like?
买衣服
Buying clothes


书 (shū) - book
English:
book
Example:
(see below)


本 (běn) - root, basis,
foundation, origin,
capital, MW for
books, files, etc.
English:
root, basis, foundation, origin, capital, MW for books, files, etc.
Example:
你喜欢这本书吗?
Do you like this book?
我喜欢这本书
I like this book


哪 (nǎ) - which
English:
which
Example:
你喜欢哪本书
Which book do you like?
我喜欢这本书
I like this book
这本书
This book
他喜欢这些书
He likes those books
他喜欢哪些书
Which books does he like?
这些书
Those books


几 (jǐ) - how many, several
English:
how many, several
Example:
你买了几本书?
How many books did you buy?
我买了几本书
I bought several books


多少 (duō shao) - how many, how
much
English:
how many, how much
Example:
这本书多少钱?
How much is this book?
你买了多少?
How many/much did you buy?


多 (duō) - much, many
English:
much, many
Example:
我买了很多
I bought a lot
我买了不多
I didn't buy too many (not really 少, but I could have bought more)


少 (shǎo) - few, little
English:
few, little
Example:
我买了很少
I bought just a few
我买了不少
I bought quite a few (not really 多, but still quite a few)


怎么 (zěn me) - how
English:
how
Example:
这本书怎么买?
How can you buy this book?
你怎么了?
How are you? What's wrong?


怎么样 (zěn me yàng) - how is/are, how
about that?
English:
how is/are, how about that?
Example:
这本书怎么养?
How's that book? Do you like this book?
你怎么样?
How are you?